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Several schemes of phylogenetic relationships among Hemiptera have been proposed, based on varying criteria.In the last decades of the twentieth century, they succeeded at short intervals, with remarkable discrepancies among them, and the proposed schemes are in steady flux.Well-preserved, complete fossils are scarce—for example Karabasia evansi (family Karabasiidae, Upper Jurassic?); Architettix compacta (family Cicadoprosbolidae, Cretacic); Incertametra santanensis (family Hydrometridae, Cretacic).The partitioning into two suborders, Homoptera and Heteroptera, or into three, segregating the Coleorrhyncha, does not express the inferred (and most accepted) paths of evolution.The relationships between Heteroptera and Homoptera and between suborders and infraorders of both major groupings have been discussed in many papers by several hemipterists; interesting results were obtained by the end of the 1980s, based on important paleontological, chemical, morphological, cytogenetical, and behavioral facts of living Hemiptera.The color may be uniform, but stripes, dots, or extensive contrasting and brightly stained areas frequently appear.Larvae can be similar to adults in color or differ greatly; some evenly stained species may have spotted larvae, among them, many stinkbugs.
Many hemipterans are dull-colored, for instance, most aquatic species; others display bright and contrasting colors, sometimes with a showy metallic shine.
The Auchenorrhyncha do not appear to be monophyletic; they comprise two infraorders, the more primitive Fulgoromorpha and the more advanced Cicadomorpha.
The monophyletic Heteroptera, or true bugs, are grouped into eight infraorders: Enicocephalomorpha, Dipsocoromorpha, Gerromorpha, Nepomorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, Pentatomomorpha, and Aradomorpha.
The strong smell justifies the name "stink bugs" for these offensive stinking species.
Many families display alary polymorphism—individuals may have complete wings, reduced wings, or no wings.
The Coleorrhyncha and Heteroptera make up the suborder Prosorrhyncha.